Three principles that currently seem almost taboo in
- Local Control: Muslim socio-political reform should be managed first by locals and second by neighboring non-Western societies;
- Civil Society First: The method should always give precedence to civil society reform with military action firmly subordinated;
: The goal should not be incorporation into the American system but the establishment of an independent society. Independence
But how can they be implemented?
Neither as a society nor as a government, has the
Whether “local” means “tribal,” “Afghan,” “Muslim,” or “Central Asian,” it implies that decisions do not flow from Washington, but what other organizations are willing to step up to take leadership and, of course, how are their members to be protected? Are there politically neutral civil society organizations that could be accepted by both sides, that could negotiate with both sides to carve out spaces for action? Might there be members or factions of the Taliban willing to accept moderate Muslim but modernizing civil society activities in return for the removal of
Civil Society. The Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief or other international relief coordinating bodies might be a route to building Afghan society that could be accepted by both the
Civil Society First:
Whatever the politically correct words from McCrystal, as long as the Pentagon is in charge, the hammer it holds in its hand will always be the main tool employed. How might
Medecins Sans Frontiers has returned to
Rafiq, for example, recommends that only Muslim troops be sent to
Wise policy-makers in
The result of American intervention in
The result of American intervention in Iraq remains to be seen but already includes perhaps 1,000,000 dead; tens of thousands of U.S. soldiers with wounds so severe their lives are destroyed; invalidation of America’s claim to being moral leader of the world; and the provocation of an Iraqi domestic terror campaign that may yet spill over into the rest of the world.
Designing an exit strategy that will save the